Shoshangko king of ancient Bengal, who ruled approximately between 590 CE and 625 CE, is credited with starting the Bengali era. His kingdom surrounded West Bengal, Bangladesh and parts of Bihar, Orissa and Assam. The starting point of Bengali era is on Monday 12th April 593 in the Julian calendar and Monday 14th April 593 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar appreciated. The Bengali calendar is published by the Hindu solar calendar based on the Surya Siddhanta is derived.
Mughal emperor Akbar, who ruled from 1556 CE to 1605 CE, and one of his councilors Fatehullah Shirazi is credited with the introduction of the new Bengali calendar for the purposes of tax collection. Before the start of the Bengali calendar, collected during the Muslim rule in India, agriculture and land tax of the Islamic Hijri calendar. But, as the Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar, the agricultural year do not always coincide with the fiscal year. Therefore, farmers hard pressed to pay taxes on the season. In the collection of taxes to be more streamlined, Emperor Akbar ordered a reform of the calendar. Consequently Fatehullah Amir Shirazi, a renowned expert on the time and the Astronomer Royal, a new calendar on the lunar Hijri and solar Hindu calendars are based formulated. The resulting Bangla calendar was after the harvest time when farmers are introduced in a relatively healthy financial position. In accordance with the harvest time, this new calendar was first known as the harvest calendar or Fôsholi Shon. During the reign of the Mughals, was officially the Bengali calendar throughout the empire. The month names have continued after the Hindu astrological names. Akbar not start the Bengali calendar with a value of 0, but it jump started with the then existing Hijri Calendar value.
Revised Bengali Calendar
The Bengali calendar in Bangladesh (East Pakistan) was approved by a committee of Mohammed Shahidullah 17th February 1966 led the change under the auspices of the Bangla Academy.
The length of a year in the Bengali calendar, as in the Gregorian calendar, like 365 days are numbered. However, the actual time that the earth in its orbit around the sun 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 47 seconds. To this difference, adds the Gregorian calendar for a day, a leap year, the month of February every four years (except in years divisible by 100 but not 400). The Bengali calendar on astronomical calculations, not based the extra leap year adjustment. Bengali months, in various lengths. To counteract this difference, and the Bengali calendar accurate to make the following recommendations of the Bangla Academy, because:
- The first five months of the year Boishakh Bhadro will consist of 31 days.
- The remaining seven months of the year Ashshin Choitro will consist of 30 days each.
- In each leap year in the Gregorian calendar, an extra day in the month of Falgun, is only 14 days after 29 Of February. (Modified with no significant change).
The revised calendar is officially adopted in Bangladesh in 1987. But it is not in the neighboring state of West Bengal, India, which will follow the traditional calendar, because the deep connection follow the Hindu culture in the Bengali calendar. Hindu religious festivals are based on a certain lunar day and celebrated Bengali calendar combination.
Revised and unrevised versions
The first Boishakh, Pôhela Boishakh, the Bengali New Year. In West Bengal it is celebrated on 14-15 April, but as the calendar in Bangladesh is DO fall in the new year always close on 14 April.
In West Bengal, India, the Bengalis are a star sun calendar, unlike the tropical solar calendar year, the revised Bengali and Gregorian calendars. The mathematical difference between the star and the tropical calendar accounts for the difference from the beginning of the year in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Due to the length of the month in the Bengali calendar is not established stars, but based on the true movement of the sun based.
The use and popularity of the Bengali calendar in eastern South Asia is partly due to the unique adaptation to seasonal patterns in the region. Southeast Asia has a climate that is divided on the best in six seasons, including the rain or the rainy season and dry season in addition to the spring, summer, autumn and winter.
In everyday use, replaced the Bengali calendar largely by the Gregorian calendar in Bengali-speaking areas, but it is still necessary to mark holidays special Bengali culture (eg Pôhela Boishakh, Durga Puja, etc.), and marking the seasons. The Bengali calendar is published by the Government of Bangladesh, whose offices are now all her correspondence with the date of the Bengali and Gregorian Calendar is recognized. Almost every Bengali and English newspapers in Bangladesh and West Bengal hit the day after the date of Bengali calendar next to the corresponding date in the Gregorian calendar. Many newspapers in Bangladesh also has a third date, after the Islamic Hijri calendar. So it is quite common in Bangladesh, written three times to find the date (eg “15 Falgun 1412, 17 Muharram 1427, 27 February 2006″) in the newspaper title.